A covalent bond consists of the mutual sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between two atoms. These electrons are simultaneously attracted by the two atomic nuclei. A covalent bond forms when the difference between the electronegativities of two atoms is too small for an electron transfer to occur to form ions.
The atoms of some elements share electrons because this gives them a full valence shell. … If atoms can’t achieve a full outer shell by transferring electrons, they resort to sharing. In this way, each atom can count the shared electrons as part of its own valence shell. This sharing of electrons is covalent bonding.
Electrons are not always shared equally between two bonding atoms. … In a bond, this can lead to unequal sharing of electrons between atoms, as electrons will be drawn closer to the atom with higher electronegativity. Bonds can fall between one of two extremes, from completely nonpolar to completely polar.
What is electron sharing?
Electron ‘sharing’ occurs when the electrons in the outermost electron shell, or valence shell electrons, from one atom can be used to complete the outermost electron shell of another atom without being permanently transferred, as occurs in the formation of an ion.
What electrons are transferred?
In ionic bonding, electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another. In the process of either losing or gaining negatively charged electrons, the reacting atoms form ions. The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces, which are the basis of the ionic bond.
What is the transfer of electrons called?
The attraction between oppositely charged ions is called an ionic bond, and it is one of the main types of chemical bonds in chemistry. Ionic bonds are caused by electrons transferring from one atom to another. In electron transfer, the number of electrons lost must equal the number of electrons gained.
In ionic bonding, atoms transfer electrons to each other. Ionic bonds require at least one electron donor and one electron acceptor. In contrast, atoms with the same electronegativity share electrons in covalent bonds, because neither atom preferentially attracts or repels the shared electrons.
Why are electrons shared in molecular compounds? Electrons are shared so that each element satisfies the octet rule. … Counting the groups of electrons that are shared pairs and lone pairs determine the electron geometry and bond angle forming its shape.